people who think globalization is a profoundly transformative process; ushering in a new era of history; optimistic about outcomes of globalization
globalizers are inaccurate or exaggerating the effects of globalization; moreover, it really doesn't belong in academia because it is so broad and vague; there are many rejectionists among historians
explanation: pankaj ghemawat is the author of global 3.0: global prosperity and how to achieve it, and he takes the stage to ask an important question: just how global are we really?
it’s not a new question, of course. it’s one that david livingstone first floated back in the 1850s, and one that’s been popularized by writers such as thomas friedman. but ghemawat, who notoriously wrote the article the world is not flat, wants us to take a look at some data. he asks the audience: what percentage of all voice calling minutes do you think were international? the answer is 2% (as much as 7% with internet telephony). the audience coos, clearly not expecting the number to be that small.
how about the number of first-generation immigrants? 3%. more “huh”s. or how much direct investment was foreign? not quite 10%. the audience gets the gist now, and here’s one last stat. exports as percent of gdp, according to official statistics around the world, average more than 30%. “but,” he says, “there’s a big problem with the official statistics. if a japanese component supplier ships something to china to be slotted into an ipod and then it’s shipped to the u.s., it counts multiple times.” it helps to have friends in high places: ghemawat asked his friend pascal lamy, director of the world trade organization, to estimate this figure excluding the double-counting and triple-counting. lamy guessed the figure would be under 20%.
the action of making or manufacturing from components or raw materials, or the process of being so manufactured.
Business sector is one of the most income-generating factors that lead to country's growth and development. Most of the countries that have growing businesses have their infrastructure sector grow together with their pace as well. Unfortunately, this is not happening in our country. Though our economy is considered as fast-rising in Asia, our business and infrastructure sector find it hard to them to boost their projects that might help our economy to reach greater heights as well.
The reason why the business sector is handicapped with inadequate infrastructure services because of some factors:Location - most of our business centers are in the mainland and the tendency to build huge infrastructure projects are not feasible as to this date because of overpopulation in the area. Business cannot expand their scope because most part of these business areas are still occupied by residential lands which we cannot demolish. If a land is intended only for commercial spaces without any residential allotments, it will still not lead to greater income because no one will patronize the products. Because of this scenario, many proposals that suggest urbanization of rural places would be a game-changer in the business sector, but few investors are interested in slow-moving return of investment due to location and few consumers available in the area.Lack of investors - since rural places have varied lifestyles, investors find it hard to gain market in those areas because of difference in priorities. That's why even though the market is stiff and tight, most investors tend to take the risk on placing their businesses in urban places rather than setting it up in rural areas without any assurance of return of investment. Difference in social groups - the most awesome infrastructure in our country can only be experienced by people who belong in the middle and higher classes of our society. Since they only cater to a specific group of community, the larger and greater group cannot afford to visit and patronize their businesses. That is why, most of the consumers shops at stores they can afford. If large companies would tie up and help small and starting businesses in developing a business world where social class is disregarded, then I think our economy would grow fast. Corruption - this is in relation with the existing policies in the planning and implementation phase of any infrastructural project where people of both parties agreed upon something unconstitutional. There are scenarios where businesses disregard government policies just to continue their operations. Other companies uses substandard materials in their infrastructure projects to produce weak facilities. With this, there will be a tendency that the government will need to repair it and the same contractors might get the same project again. There are more examples of corruption in the government and private sectors which pulls our economy down instead of giving it better opportunities for development.
These are just some of the reasons. For more information regarding this topic, you may click the link below:Who are the Underpriviledge sector on the society